Hormones/Neuromodulators

Association of stress-related neural activity and baseline interleukin-6 plasma levels in healthy adults

Abstract Several studies suggest a link between acute changes in inflammatory parameters due to an endotoxin or (psychological) stressor and the brain’s stress response. The extent to which basal circulating levels of inflammatory markers are associated with the brain’s stress response has been hardly investigated so far. In the present study, baseline plasma levels of …

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The contribution of sleep to the neuroendocrine regulation of rhythms in human leukocyte traffic

Abstract Twenty-four-hour rhythms in immune parameters and functions are robustly observed phenomena in biomedicine. Here, we summarize the important role of sleep and associated parameters on the neuroendocrine regulation of rhythmic immune cell traffic to different compartments, with a focus on human leukocyte subsets. Blood counts of “stress leukocytes” such as neutrophils, natural killer cells, …

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Assessment of reward-related brain function after a single-dose of oxytocin in autism: a randomized controlled trial

Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties in social communication and interaction, which have been related to atypical neural processing of rewards, especially in the social domain. Since intranasal oxytocin has been shown to modulate activation of the brain’s reward circuit, oxytocin might ameliorate the processing of social rewards in ASD and thus …

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Self-beneficial belief updating as a coping mechanism for stress-induced negative affect

Abstract Being confronted with social-evaluative stress elicits a physiological and a psychological stress response. This calls for regulatory processes to manage negative affect and maintain self-related optimistic beliefs. The aim of the current study was to investigate the affect-regulating potential of self-related updating of ability beliefs after exposure to social-evaluative stress, in comparison to non-social …

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Randomized clinical trial shows no substantial modulation of empathy-related neural activation by intranasal oxytocin in autism

Background: Social lives have significantly changed since social distancing measures have been implemented to prevent the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate how our appraisal of social situations changed during the pandemic. Methods: In two online surveys, conducted in October 2019 and April 2020, 58 participants rated their personal level of …

Randomized clinical trial shows no substantial modulation of empathy-related neural activation by intranasal oxytocin in autism Read More »

Peripheral oxytocin predicts higher-level social cognition in men regardless of empathy quotient

Abstract Introduction: Pharmaceutical oxytocin (OT) administration is being tested as a novel treatment for social deficits in various psychiatric populations. However, little is known about how naturally occurring variation in peripheral OT relates to differences in social cognition. This study investigates whether healthy individuals with very high or very low levels of empathy differ in endogenous …

Peripheral oxytocin predicts higher-level social cognition in men regardless of empathy quotient Read More »

Clinical trial of modulatory effects of oxytocin treatment on higher-order social cognition in autism spectrum disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind and crossover trial

Abstract Background: Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental conditions with severe impairments in social communication and interaction. Pioneering research suggests that oxytocin can improve motivation, cognition and attention to social cues in patients with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this clinical trial is to characterize basic mechanisms of action of acute oxytocin treatment on neural levels …

Clinical trial of modulatory effects of oxytocin treatment on higher-order social cognition in autism spectrum disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind and crossover trial Read More »

Effects of smoking cessation on presynaptic dopamine function of addicted male smokers

Abstract Background: There is evidence of abnormal cerebral dopamine transmission in nicotine-dependent smokers, but it is unclear whether dopaminergic abnormalities are due to acute nicotine abuse or whether they persist with abstinence. We addressed this question by conducting longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) examination of smokers before and after 3 months of abstinence. Methods: We obtained baseline …

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Acute and sustained effects of methylphenidate on cognition and presynaptic dopamine metabolism: an [18F]FDOPA PET study

Abstract Methylphenidate (MPH) inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline. PET studies with MPH challenge show increased competition at postsynaptic D2/3-receptors, thus indirectly revealing presynaptic dopamine release. We used [(18)F]fluorodopamine ([(18)F]FDOPA)-PET in conjunction with the inlet-outlet model (IOM) of Kumakura et al. (2007) to investigate acute and long-term changes in dopamine synthesis capacity and turnover …

Acute and sustained effects of methylphenidate on cognition and presynaptic dopamine metabolism: an [18F]FDOPA PET study Read More »

Functional polymorphism in the neuropeptide Y gene promoter (rs16147) is associated with serum leptin levels and waist-hip ratio in women

Abstract Objective: The neuropeptide-Y (NP-Y) gene is a strong candidate gene in the pathophysiology of obesity-linked behavior, and several single-nucleotide polymorphisms of NP-Y have already been linked to body weight and appetite. However, the results from current studies remain inconclusive. The aim of the present study was to test whether a certain functional genetic variant (SNP …

Functional polymorphism in the neuropeptide Y gene promoter (rs16147) is associated with serum leptin levels and waist-hip ratio in women Read More »

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