Clinical

Reduced frontal cortical tracking of conflict between selfish versus prosocial motives in Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Abstract Abstract Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) entails severe impariments in interpersonal functioning that are likely driven by selfish and exploitative behavior. Here, we investigate the underlying motivational and neural mechanisms of prosocial decision-making by experimentally manipulating motivational conflict between selfish and prosocial incentives. One group of patients diagnosed with NPD and a group of healthy …

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Empathy in females with autism spectrum disorder

Abstract Objective: Despite the fact that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common psychiatric diagnosis, knowledge about the special behavioral and neurobiological female phenotype is still scarce. The present study aimed to investigate neural correlates of empathy for physical and social pain and to assess the impact of egocentric perspective taking on social pain empathy in …

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Microstructural white matter changes and their relation to neuropsychological deficits in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

Abstract Objective: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the most common idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome. Neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging studies have led to the hypothesis that JME is related to dysfunction of frontal brain regions and mainly frontal thalamocortical networks. Methods: We investigated possible microstructural white matter abnormalities of 20 patients with JME as compared with 20 healthy …

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Ketamine-induced NMDA receptor blockade during natural speech production and Its implications for formal thought disorder in schizophrenia: A Pharmaco-fMRI Study

Abstract Structural and functional changes in the lateral temporal language areas have been related to formal thought disorder (FTD) in schizophrenia. Continuous, natural speech production activates the right lateral temporal lobe in schizophrenia, as opposed to the left in healthy subjects. Positive and negative FTD can be elicited in healthy subjects by glutamatergic NMDA blockade …

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Study protocol of the ASD-Net, the German research consortium for the study of Autism Spectrum Disorder across the lifespan: from a better etiological understanding, through valid diagnosis, to more effective health care

Abstract Background: Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a severe, lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder with early onset that places a heavy burden on affected individuals and their families. Due to the need for highly specialized health, educational and vocational services, ASD is a cost-intensive disorder, and strain on health care systems increases with increasing age of the affected …

Study protocol of the ASD-Net, the German research consortium for the study of Autism Spectrum Disorder across the lifespan: from a better etiological understanding, through valid diagnosis, to more effective health care Read More »

Clinical trial of modulatory effects of oxytocin treatment on higher-order social cognition in autism spectrum disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind and crossover trial

Abstract Background: Autism spectrum disorders are neurodevelopmental conditions with severe impairments in social communication and interaction. Pioneering research suggests that oxytocin can improve motivation, cognition and attention to social cues in patients with autism spectrum disorder. The aim of this clinical trial is to characterize basic mechanisms of action of acute oxytocin treatment on neural levels …

Clinical trial of modulatory effects of oxytocin treatment on higher-order social cognition in autism spectrum disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind and crossover trial Read More »

Fronto-insula network activity explains emotional dysfunctions in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: combined evidence from pupillometry and fMRI

Abstract Emotional instability, difficulties in social adjustment, and disinhibited behavior are the most common symptoms of the psychiatric comorbidities in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). This psychopathology has been associated with dysfunctions of mesial-frontal brain circuits. The present work is a first direct test of this link and adapted a paradigm for probing frontal circuits during …

Fronto-insula network activity explains emotional dysfunctions in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: combined evidence from pupillometry and fMRI Read More »

Neural pathways of embarrassment and their modulation by social anxiety

Abstract While being in the center of attention and exposed to other’s evaluations humans are prone to experience embarrassment. To characterize the neural underpinnings of such aversive moments, we induced genuine experiences of embarrassment during person-group interactions in a functional neuroimaging study. Using a mock-up scenario with three confederates, we examined how the presence of …

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Effects of smoking cessation on presynaptic dopamine function of addicted male smokers

Abstract Background: There is evidence of abnormal cerebral dopamine transmission in nicotine-dependent smokers, but it is unclear whether dopaminergic abnormalities are due to acute nicotine abuse or whether they persist with abstinence. We addressed this question by conducting longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET) examination of smokers before and after 3 months of abstinence. Methods: We obtained baseline …

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Evidence from pupillometry and fMRI indicates reduced neural response during vicarious social pain but not physical pain in autism

Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by substantial social deficits. The notion that dysfunctions in neural circuits involved in sharing another’s affect explain these deficits is appealing, but has received only modest experimental support. Here we evaluated a complex paradigm on the vicarious social pain of embarrassment to probe social deficits in ASD as …

Evidence from pupillometry and fMRI indicates reduced neural response during vicarious social pain but not physical pain in autism Read More »

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